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2021考博英语词汇语法题常考知识点专项练习:非谓语动词

2020.09.18 08:45

2021考博英语词汇语法题常考知识点专项练习:非谓语动词

  全国各院校考博英语考试题型中词汇语法题也是大多院校所考察的,考博复习冲刺阶段新东方在线考博频道为考生们整理了一系列考博英语词汇语法题常考知识点专项练习供考生们复习参考。希望大家能熟练掌握,考博成功。

  动词不定式

  1. 常用形式:

  一般主动式to do

  一般被动式to be done

  完成主动式to have done

  完成被动式to have been done

  进行式to be doing

  2.语法功能:

  可作主、表、宾、宾补、定和状(即除谓语之外的各种成分)。

  1)主语:To master a foreign language is very important.

  2)表语:My job is to drive them to the company every day.

  3)宾语:Do you want to visit the Great Wall?

  Can you give us some advice on what to do next?

  4)宾补:The teacher advised us to have a rest first.

  I didn’t notice them come in.

  注:see, watch, notice, hear ,have, make, let等动词后作宾补的动词不定式不带to, 但变为被动语态以后(即不定式作主补时)要带to, 其中let sb. do sth. 变为被动式为sb. is let do sth.

  help(帮助)后作宾补的动词不定式可带to,也可不带to. 即help sb.(to)do sth.

  5)定语:不定式位于所修饰的名词,代词之后(当一个词被序数词或形容词的最高级修饰时,该名词只能选不定式作后置定语)如:

  Who was the first one to set to the top of the hill yesterday?

  He is the man to depend on/to believe in.

  6)状语:

  A.目的状语:She reads China Daily every day so as to improve her Chinese.

  注:in order to 可以位于句首或句中,so as to 不能位于句首。

  B.原因状语: I’m glad to see you .

  注:这种“be+形容词+不定式”结构,其不定式有时也可视为宾语,如:He is eager to go to college./ She is sure to come here.

  C.结果状语:They lived to see t he liberation of their home town.

  他们一直活到见到家乡解放。

  △在“too…to…”结构中表“太…结果不能”,如:He is too weak to do the work.

  注:too之前如果有only, only too 表“非常”、“很”意,此时不定式不再表否定意,而表肯定意。如:They are only too lucky to go abroad for a visit. 他们很幸运去国外访问。

  另外,too后如果是happy, glad之类形容词时,不定式也表肯定意,

  如:She was too happy to meet her old friend in the street.

  Can’t...too... “再...也不为过”“越...越好”

  You can't be too careful when crossing the road.

  △ 在“形容词/副词+enough+不定式”结构中表“足以能…”,如:He is strong enough to do the work .

  △ only to do

  3.复合结构不定式(for sb. to do sth.)

  可作主语、表语、宾语、定语和状语。for 本身无意义,sb.可称之为不定式的逻辑主语。例如:I think it is necessary for him to go there at once.(复合结构不定式作宾语)

  注:当作表语用的形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的性质,性格或特征时,不用for, 而用of,

  如:It is kind of you to help me .(相当于You are kind to help me .)这类形容词有good,nice,kind,wise, clever, foolish, silly, stupid, careless, impolite(不礼貌)等。right, wrong既可用于for sb. to do sth. 也可用于of sb. to do sth. 例如:It’s right/wrong for/of him to do the work alone.

  4.疑问词+不定式:

  可作主语、表语或宾语。

  如:How to finish the work in time is a problem.(主语)

  We don’t know when and where to go .(宾语)

  5.动词不定式的否定式(not to do sth.)

  语法功能同不定式肯定式。

  6.不定式的时态形式所表示的时间关系:

  1)一般式:表示的动作和谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,或在谓语动作之后,或没有时间限制。例如:

  They often watch us play table tennis.(与谓语动作同时)

  She hopes to go there again.(在谓语动作之后)

  It is necessary and important to read English every day.(无时间限制)

  The factory to make radios is over there.(无时间限制)

  2)完成式:表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。

  I’m sorry to have kept you waiting. /She seems to have been a teacher for many years.

  3)进行式:表示正在发生的动作/与谓语动作同时发生。例如:

  She happened to be writing a letter in the room when I come in.

  7.不定式的被动式:

  名词、代词为不定式的逻辑宾语时,一般用不定式被动式,

  What is to be done is unknown /The bridge to be bulit there is very long.

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